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Although early Cretan coins occasionally exhibit branching multicursal patterns,  the single-path unicursal seven-course "Classical" design without branching or dead ends became associated with the Labyrinth on coins as early as BC,  and similar non-branching patterns became widely used as visual representations of the Labyrinth — even though both logic and literary descriptions make it clear that the Minotaur was trapped in a complex branching maze.
Branching mazes were reintroduced only when hedge mazes became popular during the Renaissance. In English, the term labyrinth is generally synonymous with maze.
As a result of the long history of unicursal representation of the mythological Labyrinth, however, many contemporary scholars and enthusiasts observe a distinction between the two.
In this specialized usage maze refers to a complex branching multicursal puzzle with choices of path and direction, while a unicursal labyrinth has only a single path to the center.
A labyrinth in this sense has an unambiguous route to the center and back and presents no navigational challenge. Unicursal labyrinths appeared as designs on pottery or basketry , as body art , and in etchings on walls of caves or churches.
The Romans created many primarily decorative unicursal designs on walls and floors in tile or mosaic. Many labyrinths set in floors or on the ground are large enough that the path can be walked.
Unicursal patterns have been used historically both in group ritual and for private meditation , and are increasingly found for therapeutic use in hospitals and hospices.
Labyrinth is a word of pre-Greek origin whose derivation and meaning are uncertain. Maximillian Mayer suggested as early as  that labyrinthos might derive from labrys , a Lydian word for "double-bladed axe".
These are all complex underground structures,  and this appears to have been the standard Classical understanding of the word. The goddess of the double-axe probably presided over the Minoan palaces, and especially over the palace of Knossos.
When the Bronze Age site at Knossos was excavated by explorer Arthur Evans , the complexity of the architecture prompted him to suggest that the palace had been the Labyrinth of Daedalus.
Evans found various bull motifs, including an image of a man leaping over the horns of a bull , as well as depictions of a labrys carved into the walls.
On the strength of a passage in the Iliad ,  it has been suggested that the palace was the site of a dancing-ground made for Ariadne by the craftsman Daedalus ,   where young men and women, of the age of those sent to Crete as prey for the Minotaur, would dance together.
By extension, in popular legend the palace is associated with the myth of the Minotaur. In the s, archaeologists explored other potential sites of the labyrinth.
Another contender is a series of tunnels at Gortyn , accessed by a narrow crack but expanding into interlinking caverns.
Unlike the Skotino cave, these caverns have smooth walls and columns, and appear to have been at least partially man-made. This site corresponds to an unusual labyrinth symbol on a 16th-century map of Crete contained in a book of maps in the library of Christ Church, Oxford.
A map of the caves themselves was produced by the French in The site was also used by German soldiers to store ammunition during the Second World War.
Howarth's investigation was shown on a documentary  produced for the National Geographic Channel. More generally, labyrinth might be applied to any extremely complicated maze-like structure.
Herodotus , in Book II of his Histories , describes as a "labyrinth" a building complex in Egypt, "near the place called the City of Crocodiles ," that he considered to surpass the pyramids :.
It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range exactly fronting the gates of the other. Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, and the other half directly above them.
I was taken through the rooms in the upper storey, so what I shall say of them is from my own observation, but the underground ones I can speak of only from report, because the Egyptians in charge refused to let me see them, as they contain the tombs of the kings who built the labyrinth, and also the tombs of the sacred crocodiles.
The upper rooms, on the contrary, I did actually see, and it is hard to believe that they are the work of men; the baffling and intricate passages from room to room and from court to court were an endless wonder to me, as we passed from a courtyard into rooms, from rooms into galleries, from galleries into more rooms and thence into yet more courtyards.
The roof of every chamber, courtyard, and gallery is, like the walls, of stone. The walls are covered with carved figures, and each court is exquisitely built of white marble and surrounded by a colonnade.
In , the Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities described the structure as "the largest of all the temples of Egypt, the so-called Labyrinth, of which, however, only the foundation stones have been preserved.
Pliny the Elder 's Natural History According to Pliny, the tomb of the great Etruscan general Lars Porsena contained an underground maze.
Pliny's description of the exposed portion of the tomb is intractable; Pliny, it seems clear, had not observed this structure himself, but is quoting the historian and Roman antiquarian Varro.
A design essentially identical to the 7-course "classical" pattern appeared in Native American culture, the Tohono O'odham people labyrinth which features I'itoi , the "Man in the Maze.
The earliest appearances cannot be dated securely; the oldest is commonly dated to the 17th century. A prehistoric petroglyph on a riverbank in Goa shows a maze-like pattern and has been dated to circa BC.
Early labyrinths in India typically follow the Classical pattern or a local variant of it; some have been described as plans of forts or cities.
Labyrinths appear in Indian manuscripts and Tantric texts from the 17th century onward. They are often called " Chakravyuha " in reference to an impregnable battle formation described in the ancient Mahabharata epic.
By the White Sea , notably on the Solovetsky Islands , there have been preserved more than 30 stone labyrinths. The most remarkable monument is the Stone labyrinths of Bolshoi Zayatsky Island - a group of 13—14 stone labyrinths on 0.
These labyrinths are thought to be 2,—3, years old. The 7-course "Classical" or "Cretan" pattern known from Cretan coins ca — BC appears in several examples from antiquity, some perhaps as early as the late Stone Age or early Bronze Age.
An image of the Minotaur or an allusion to the legend of the Minotaur appears at the center of many of these mosaic labyrinths.
The four-axis medieval patterns may have developed from the Roman model, but are more varied in how the four quadrants of the design are traced out.
The Minotaur or other danger is retained in the center of several medieval examples. The Chartres pattern named for its appearance in Chartres Cathedral is the most common medieval design; it appears in manuscripts as early as the 9th century.
Earliest securely dated labyrinth, incised on a clay tablet from Pylos , ca BC. Labyrinth among rock drawings in Valcamonica , Italy , probably 1st millennium BC.
Roman mosaic picturing Theseus and the Minotaur. Rhaetia , Switzerland. The Chartres pattern as executed in Chartres Cathedral early s. Sketch of the Chartres pattern by Villard de Honnecourt c.
Chartres pattern as a wall maze in Lucca Cathedral, Italy 12th—13th century. Chartres pattern in octagonal form, Cathedral of Amiens , France.
Illustration of Jericho in a Farhi Bible 14th century. Portrait of a man with labyrinth design on his chest, by Bartolomeo Veneto , Italy, early 16th century.
Illustration of a labyrinth from La Nouvelle Maison rustique Labyrinth at St. Lambertus, Mingolsheim , Germany, following the Roman paradigm.
Hemet Maze Stone, a prehistoric petroglyph near Hemet, California. Chakravyuha , a threefold seed pattern with a spiral at the center, one of the troop formations employed at the battle of Kurukshetra , as recounted in the Mahabharata.
When the early humanist Benzo d'Alessandria visited Verona before , he noted the " Laberinthum which is now called the Arena ";  perhaps he was seeing the cubiculi beneath the arena's missing floor.
The full flowering of the medieval labyrinth came about from the twelfth through fourteenth centuries with the grand pavement labyrinths of the gothic cathedrals , notably Chartres , Reims and Amiens in northern France.
These labyrinths may have originated as symbolic allusion to the Holy City ; and some modern thinkers have theorized that prayers and devotions may have accompanied the perambulation of their intricate paths.
Over the same general period, some or more non-ecclesiastical labyrinths were constructed in Scandinavia. These labyrinths, generally in coastal areas, are marked out with stones, most often in the simple 7- or course classical forms.
They often have names which translate as " Troy Town. There are also stone labyrinths on the Isles of Scilly , although none is known to date from before the nineteenth century.
There are examples of labyrinths in many disparate cultures. The symbol has appeared in various forms and media petroglyphs , classic-form, medieval-form, pavement, turf, and basketry at some time throughout most parts of the world, from Native North and South America to Australia , Java , India , and Nepal.
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in labyrinths and a revival in labyrinth building, of both unicursal and multicursal patterns.
The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges was entranced with the idea of the labyrinth, and used it extensively in his short stories such as "The House of Asterion" in The Aleph.
His use of it has inspired other authors e. Danielewski's House of Leaves. Additionally, Roger Zelazny 's fantasy series, The Chronicles of Amber , features a labyrinth, called "the Pattern," which grants those who walk it the power to move between parallel worlds.
The avant-garde multi-screen film, In the Labyrinth , presents a search for meaning in a symbolic modern labyrinth. Australian author Sara Douglass incorporated some labyrinthine ideas in her series The Troy Game , in which the Labyrinth on Crete is one of several in the ancient world, created with the cities as a source of magical power.
The Minotaur was said to have been slain by the Greek hero Theseus, who then managed to find his way out of the labyrinth with the aid of a ball of thread that had been given to him by Ariadne, the daughter of Minos.
Examples of labyrinth in a Sentence a complex labyrinth of tunnels and chambers The cockpit was a labyrinth of instruments and controls.
Send us feedback. See more words from the same century Dictionary Entries near labyrinth labrys Labuan laburnum labyrinth labyrinthal labyrinth fish labyrinthian.
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Listen to the words and spell through all three levels. Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Definition of labyrinth. Synonyms Is there a difference between maze and labyrinth?
More Example Sentences Learn More about labyrinth. Keep scrolling for more. Synonyms for labyrinth Synonyms maze , rabbit warren , warren Visit the Thesaurus for More.
Is there a difference between maze and labyrinth? Recent Examples on the Web This promises to be an experience that takes you inside the labyrinth —from the comfort of your own home.Nostalgic Art Coca-Cola Diner. Könitz Becher "Ich hab Dich lieb bis zum Mond". Abdeckhaube Bank 2-sitzer cm, PE transparent. Dont Novoline Spiele a addict! Guter Zust EUR 8, Nur noch 3. Diese Website verwendet Cookies, um Ihnen die bestmögliche Funktionalität bieten zu können. Spiralen, Löcher, Tore Paysafe For You 8, Beste Ergebnisse. Schminktisch Fiona. Ridder Duschspinne, Duschschirm, Ombrella, Sylt blau. Angebotsformat Alle ansehen. Marke Alle ansehen. Mysterious New Mexico. The full flowering of Labyrinth Kugel medieval labyrinth came about from the twelfth through fourteenth centuries with the grand pavement labyrinths of the gothic cathedralsnotably ChartresReims and Amiens in northern France. The most remarkable monument is the Stone labyrinths of Bolshoi Zayatsky Island - a group of 13—14 stone labyrinths on 0. Gamest Start, Donald A. Yates, John M. Dictionary Entries near labyrinth labrys Labuan laburnum labyrinth labyrinthal labyrinth fish labyrinthian See More Nearby Entries. More Online Bingo Offers for labyrinth. Branching mazes were reintroduced only Macdonals Game hedge mazes became popular during the Renaissance. The most famous medieval labyrinth, with great influence on later practice, was created in Chartres Cathedral. For other Sea Cleaner, see Labyrinth disambiguation.
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The Labyrinth Society  provides a locator for modern labyrinths all over the world. In addition, the labyrinth can serve as a metaphor for situations that are difficult to be extricated from, as an image that suggests getting lost in a subterranean dungeon-like world.
Octavio Paz titled his book on Mexican identity The Labyrinth of Solitude , describing the Mexican condition as orphaned and lost. Labyrinths have on various occasions been used in Christian tradition as a part of worship.
The earliest known example is from a fourth-century pavement at the Basilica of St Reparatus, at Orleansville, Algeria, with the words "Sancta Eclesia" [ sic ] at the center, though it is unclear how it might have been used in worship.
In medieval times, labyrinths began to appear on church walls and floors around AD. The most famous medieval labyrinth, with great influence on later practice, was created in Chartres Cathedral.
The use of labyrinths has recently been revived in some contexts of Christian worship. Many churches in Europe and North America have constructed permanent, typically unicursal, labyrinths, or employ temporary ones e.
For example, a labyrinth was set up on the floor of St Paul's Cathedral for a week in March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Labyrinth disambiguation.
Turf maze at Wing in Rutland , UK. Play media. Retrieved 28 December The Labyrinth Society. Retrieved 18 September Zur mykenischen Tracht und Kultur".
Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich deutschen archäologischen Instituts. VII : Oxford University Press p. Journal of Hellenic Studies.
Rouse criticised the association with Knossos, noting the reappearance of the same inscribed symbols at the newly discovered palace at Phaistos p.
Beck Verlag Vol I, p. The Ancient Greeks. An introduction. Oxford University Press. Roma: Il Calamo. Through the Labyrinth. Munich, New York, London: Prestel.
Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Schachermeyer , Die Minoische Kultur des alten Kreta , pp. University of Oslo. Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University.
Classical Philology. Hereon there danced youths and maidens whom all would woo, with their hands on one another's wrists.
The maidens wore robes of light linen, and the youths well woven shirts that were slightly oiled. There was a bard also to sing to them and play his lyre, while two tumblers went about performing in the midst of them when the man struck up with his tune.
The Independent. Twentieth Dynasty. Labyrinths and Mazes. Retrieved 10 January Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
The maze and the warrior: symbols in architecture, theology, and music. Harvard University Press. Taylor and Francis.
Bloomberg News. Retrieved 30 July The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February Art Books. Retrieved 7 January Log In. Definition of labyrinth.
Synonyms Is there a difference between maze and labyrinth? More Example Sentences Learn More about labyrinth. Keep scrolling for more. Synonyms for labyrinth Synonyms maze , rabbit warren , warren Visit the Thesaurus for More.
Is there a difference between maze and labyrinth? Recent Examples on the Web This promises to be an experience that takes you inside the labyrinth —from the comfort of your own home.
First Known Use of labyrinth 15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a. History and Etymology for labyrinth Middle English laborintus , from Latin labyrinthus , from Greek labyrinthos.
Learn More about labyrinth. Time Traveler for labyrinth The first known use of labyrinth was in the 15th century See more words from the same century.
Dictionary Entries near labyrinth labrys Labuan laburnum labyrinth labyrinthal labyrinth fish labyrinthian See More Nearby Entries.
More Definitions for labyrinth. English Language Learners Definition of labyrinth. In this Maurois notes that to some extent, "'Every writer creates his own precursors'", finally noting that Borges' stories can be described by "'an absurd postulate developed to its extreme logical consequences'", making "a game for [Borges'] mind".
This, he claims, reflects Borges' interest in metaphysics and philosophy, and leads to his style of magical realism. The balance of the translations are by Donald A.
Originally published by New Directions Publishing ,. On the book's release, the journalist Mildred Adams at The New York Times wrote of it, "The translations, made by various hands, are not only good they are downright enjoyable.
They make it finally possible, after all these years, to give Borges his due and to add North Americans to his wide public. An excellent compendium, it's a sort of collection of collections which I find a little frustrating although it mirrors his theme of recursiveness.
More recently, there has been the reissue of all of his short stories: Collected Fictions, translated by Andrew Hurley. But this new translation, commissioned by his estate after his death, has proved controversial.
The battle over Borges's legacy in English has become as Daedalian as one of his faux literary essays. It's hard to know where to begin rereading.
The essayist Alberto Manguel writes in The Guardian that, "since the first American translations of Borges, attempted in the Fifties by well-intentioned admirers such as Donald Yates and James Irby, English-speaking readers have been very poorly served.
From the uneven versions collected in Labyrinths to the more meticulous, but ultimately unsuccessful, editions published by Norman Thomas di Giovanni , from Ruth Simm's abominable apery of 'Other Inquisitions' to Paul Bowles's illiterate rendition of 'The Circular Ruins', Borges in English must be read in spite of the translations.
In the London Society of Authors selected Labyrinths as one of the fifty outstanding translations from the last fifty years.