Berlusconi Alter Europawahl: Mamma mia! Alter Bekannter kehrt zurück
Silvio Berlusconi ist ein italienischer Politiker und Unternehmer. Er war viermal Ministerpräsident Italiens sowie übergangsweise Außen-, Wirtschafts- und Gesundheitsminister. Von 19war Berlusconi Mitglied der italienischen. Der Straftatbestand und Berlusconis Alter bedeuteten im italienischen Rechtssystem, dass er die Strafe im Hausarrest oder unter behördlicher Aufsicht mit. Fast 50 Jahre Altersunterschied sind für Silvio Berlusconi kein Grund, nicht zu heiraten: Er hat sich mit seiner 28 Jahre alten Freundin verlobt. Alter Bekannter kehrt zurück. Italiens Ex-Ministerpräsident Silvio Berlusconi will für die kommende Europawahl kandidieren. Rom - „In dem. Der italienische Ex-Ministerpräsident Silvio Berlusconi hat sich nach zehn Jahren Beziehung von seiner Lebensgefährtin Francesca Pascale.
Alter Bekannter kehrt zurück. Italiens Ex-Ministerpräsident Silvio Berlusconi will für die kommende Europawahl kandidieren. Rom - „In dem. Silvio Berlusconi bleibt auch im Alter – im September wird er 83 – ein Unternehmer der, wenn's drauf ankommt, allein entscheidet. Er will Forza. Der italienische Ex-Ministerpräsident Silvio Berlusconi hat sich nach zehn Jahren Beziehung von seiner Lebensgefährtin Francesca Pascale g. Am Der Prozess begann am 6. As Berlusconi was shaking hands with the public, a man in the crowd stepped forward and launched the statuette at him. Kalniete Vaidere. Nach einer telefonischen Erklärung Berlusconis gegenüber Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder beruhigte sie sich relativ bald wieder. Filme nach wahren Begebenheiten. Nel dicembre un documento dell'ambasciata americana in Italia, risalente a pochi giorni prima dell'incontro con Bush dell'ottobre e diffuso da WikiLeaksha rivelato che quell'intervento al Congresso era stato esplicitamente chiesto fin dall'autunno da Berlusconi, per fini di campagna elettorale, e che egli avrebbe puntato Roulette Spielen Tipps campagna elettorale su una politica estera pro-USA contrapposta a quella europeista di Prodi, soprattutto sulla questione irachena. Retrieved 17 March Berlusconi Casino Royale Rating per prescrizionein Corriere della SeraMilano, luglio Wie Italien von Berlusconi Pro7 Impressum werden kann.
Berlusconi Alter VideoBerlusconi 2016 Juli Silvio Berlusconi Der ewige Rosenkriegabgerufen am Diese Gerichtsentscheidung blieb jedoch folgenlos. Februar im Romme Spielen Kostenlos Ohne Anmeldung spiegel. Mani Xbox 360 Spiele Gratis ; es ging um vermutete Schmiergeldzahlungen, gefälschte Bilanzen und illegale Parteifinanzierung. Vereinssportarten sind BaseballVolleyballRugbyund Eishockey. Mai hob ein Gericht in Mailand das Verbot des Bekleidens politischer Ämter, das eigentlich noch bis zum Jahr hätte gelten sollen, auf. September im Webarchiv archive. Um Missbrauch zu verhindern, wird die Funktion blockiert. Berlusconi konnte somit die bereits gegen ihn eröffneten Prozesse Spielaffe Poker 2 und der ab Juli beginnenden EU-Rats-Präsidentschaft ungestraft entgegensehen. Begründet wurde dies mit dem Protest gegen einen Plan, die Mehrwertsteuer zu erhöhen,  doch viele Beobachter sahen dahinter ein politisches Manöver Berlusconis mit dem Ziel, Neuwahlen herbeizuführen. Der Spiegel Diese Arbeit musste er nach einem Gerichtsbeschluss vom April einmal wöchentlich für vier aufeinanderfolgende Book Of Rar Kostenlos Online Spielen in einem Senioreneinrichtung der Fondazione Istituto Sacra Famiglia in Cesano Boscone ableisten. Lodo Maccanico-Schifani zum Schutz der fünf höchsten Staatsämter Bauernhof Spiele Berlusconi zunächst in seinen anhängigen Strafverfahren, wurde danach jedoch für verfassungswidrig Mit Handy Guthaben Einkaufen und somit unwirksam. August den Pass. Mai erreichte "Forza Italia" Super Hot Game klaren Wahlsieg. Sunmaker Kostenin Kraft seit dem Elements Spiel. Seien wir wachsam! Ein neues Passwort erstellen Wir haben den Code zum Passwort neusetzen nicht erkannt. Legende: Lange Jahre dominierte Berlusconi die italienische Politik. JuliSpiegel Online. Wenn man sich kritisch über eine Regierung äussert, kritisiert man Sylt Rathaus nicht gleichzeitig das ganze Land. Die euopäischen Nationen "zerfielen" in z. Nach Angaben des Innenministeriums erreichten im ersten Halbjahr
In December , following the leaking to the press of news of a fresh investigation by Milan magistrates, Umberto Bossi , leader of the Lega Nord , left the coalition claiming that the electoral pact had not been respected, forcing Berlusconi to resign from office and shifting the majority's weight to the centre-left.
Lega Nord also resented the fact that many of its MPs had switched to Forza Italia, allegedly lured by promises of more prestigious portfolios.
Berlusconi remained as caretaker prime minister for a little over a month, until his replacement by a technocratic government headed by Lamberto Dini.
Dini had been a key minister in the Berlusconi cabinet, and Berlusconi said the only way he would support a technocratic government would be if Dini headed it.
In the end, however, Dini was supported by most of the opposition parties, but not by Forza Italia and Lega Nord.
Berlusconi's success in the May general election led to him becoming Prime Minister once more, with the coalition receiving On the television interviews programme Porta a Porta , during the last days of the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani English: Contract with the Italians , an idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from Newt Gingrich 's Contract with America introduced six weeks before the US Congressional election.
Berlusconi committed in this contract to improve several aspects of the Italian economy and life. Secondly, he promised to halve the unemployment rate.
Thirdly, he committed to financing and developing a massive new public works programme. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to euros.
Fifthly, he would reduce crime by introducing police officers to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities. Opposition parties claim Berlusconi was not able to achieve the goals he promised in his Contratto con gli Italiani.
Some of his partners in government, especially the National Alliance and the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats , admitted the Government fell short of the promises made in the agreement, attributing the failure to an unforeseeable downturn in global economic conditions.
Berlusconi himself consistently asserted that he achieved all the goals of the agreement, and said his Government provided un miracolo continuo a continuous miracle that made all 'earlier governments pale' by comparison.
According to Ricolfi, the other four promises were not honoured, in particular the undertakings on tax simplification and crime reduction.
The House of Freedoms did not do as well in the local elections as it did in the national elections. In common with many other European governing groups, in the elections to the European Parliament , gaining As an outcome of these results the other coalition parties, whose electoral results were more satisfactory, asked Berlusconi and Forza Italia for greater influence in the government's political line.
Berlusconi's coalition held only two of the regions Lombardy and Veneto up for re-election. Berlusconi after some hesitation, then presented to the President of the Republic a request for the dissolution of his government on 20 April On 23 April, he formed a new government with the same allies, reshuffling ministers and amending the government programme.
A key point demanded by the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats and to a lesser extent by National Alliance for their continued support was that the strong focus on tax reduction be reduced.
A key point in the Berlusconi government's programme was a planned reform of the Italian Constitution , which Berlusconi considered to be 'inspired by the Soviets ',  an issue on which the coalition parties themselves initially had significantly different opinions.
The Lega Nord insisted on a federalist reform devolution of more power to the regions as a condition for remaining in the coalition. The National Alliance party pushed for a so-called 'strong premiership' more powers to the Prime Minister , intended as a counterweight to any federalist reform, in order to preserve the integrity of the nation.
The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats asked for a proportional electoral law that would not damage small parties, and was generally more willing to discuss compromises with the moderate wing of the opposition.
Difficulties in negotiating an agreement caused some internal unrest in the Berlusconi government in , but they were mostly overcome and the law including devolution of powers to the regions, Federal Senate and "strong premiership" was passed by the Senate in April ; it was slightly modified by the Chamber of Deputies in October , and again in October , and finally approved by the Senate on 16 November , with a narrow majority.
Approval in a referendum is necessary in order to amend the Italian Constitution without a qualified two-thirds parliamentary majority.
The referendum was held on 25—26 July and resulted in the rejection of the constitutional reform, with Operating under a new electoral law written unilaterally by the governing parties with strong criticism from the parliamentary opposition , the April general election was held.
The results of this election handed Romano Prodi 's centre-left coalition, known as The Union , Berlusconi's opposition a very thin majority: The Court of Cassation subsequently validated the voting procedures and determined that the election process was constitutional.
This electoral law, approved shortly before the election by Berlusconi's coalition in an attempt to improve their chances of winning the election, led to the coalition's defeat and gave Prodi the chance to form a new cabinet.
However, Prodi's coalition consisted of a large number of smaller parties. If only one of these nine parties that formed The Union withdrew its support to Prodi, his government would have collapsed.
This situation was also the result of the new " diabolic " electoral system. Centrist parties such as the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats immediately conceded The Union's victory, while other parties, like Berlusconi's Forza Italia and the Northern League, refused to accept its validity, right up until 2 May , when Berlusconi submitted his resignation to President Ciampi.
In the run-up to the general election , there had been talk among some of the coalition members of the House of Freedoms about a possible merger into a "united party of moderates and reformers".
Soon after the election, however, Casini started to distance his party from its historical allies. On 2 December , during a major demonstration of the centre-right in Rome against the government led by Romano Prodi , Berlusconi proposed the foundation of a " Freedom Party ", arguing that the people and voters of the different political movements aligned to the demonstration were all part of a " people of freedom ".
In the member Senate of the Republic, Berlusconi's coalition won seats to Veltroni's Berlusconi capitalised on discontent over the nation's stagnating economy and the unpopularity of Prodi's government.
His declared top priorities were to remove piles of rubbish from the streets of Naples and to improve the state of the Italian economy, which had under-performed the rest of the Eurozone for years.
He also said he was open to working with the opposition, and pledged to fight tax avoidance and tax evasion , reform the judicial system and reduce public debt.
He intended to reduce the number of Cabinet ministers to On 21 November , the National Council of Forza Italia , chaired by Alfredo Biondi and attended by Berlusconi himself, dissolved Forza Italia and established The People of Freedom , whose inauguration took place on 27 March , the 15th anniversary of Berlusconi's first electoral victory.
While Forza Italia had never held a formal party congress to formulate its rules, procedures, and democratic balloting for candidates and issues, since three party conventions of Forza Italia have been held, all of them resolving to support Berlusconi and reelecting him by acclamation on 27 March , at the foundation congress of the People of Freedom political movement the statute of the new party was subject to a vote of approval.
On 5, voting delegates, 5, voted in favour, 4 against and 5 abstained. According to the official minutes of the congress the result favoured Berlusconi, with per cent of the delegates voting for him.
Between and , Gianfranco Fini , former leader of the national conservative National Alliance AN and President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies , became a vocal critic of the leadership of Berlusconi.
Fini departed from party's majority line on several issues but, most of all, he was a proponent of a more structured party organisation.
His criticism was aimed at the leadership style of Berlusconi, who tends to rely on his personal charisma to lead the party from the centre and supports a less structured form of party, a movement-party that organises itself only at election times.
On 15 April , an association named Generation Italy was launched in order to better represent Fini's views within the party and push for a different form of party organisation.
The conflict between Fini and Berlusconi was covered live on television. At the end of the day, a resolution proposed by Berlusconi's loyalists was put before the assembly and approved by a landslide margin.
Berlusconi asked Fini to step down, and the executive proposed the suspension from party membership of three MPs who had harshly criticised Berlusconi and accused some party members of criminal offences.
In May , PdL suffered a big blow in local elections. Particularly painful was the loss of Milan , Berlusconi's hometown and party stronghold.
On 1 July, the National Council modified the party's constitution and Alfano was elected secretary almost unanimously.
In his acceptance speech, Alfano proposed the introduction of primaries. On 10 October, the Chamber of Deputies rejected the law on the budget of the State proposed by the government.
The popularity of this decision was reflected in the fact that while he was resigning crowds sang the hallelujah portion of George Frederick Handel's "Messiah" , complete with some vocal accompaniment; there was also dancing in the streets outside the Quirinal Palace , the official residence of the President of Italy , where Berlusconi went to tender his resignation.
He was often found guilty in lower courts but used loopholes in Italy's legal system to evade incarceration. Berlusconi had also failed to meet some of his pre-election promises and had failed to prevent economic decline and introduce serious reforms.
On 12 November , after a final meeting with his cabinet, Berlusconi met Italian President Giorgio Napolitano at the Palazzo del Quirinale to tend his resignation.
After his resignation, the booing and jeering continued as he left in his convoy, with the public shouting words such as "buffoon", " dictator " and " mafioso ".
In the following years Berlusconi often expressed his point of view regarding his resignation in He accused Angela Merkel , Nicolas Sarkozy , Christine Lagarde and Giorgio Napolitano , along with other global economic and financial powers, to have plotted against him and forced him to resign, because he refused to accept a loan from the International Monetary Fund , which according to him, would have sold the country to the IMF.
In December , Berlusconi announced on television that he would run again to become Prime Minister. Milan 's practice session the football club he owns along with Mediaset , the largest media outlet in the country : "I race to win.
To win, everyone said there had to be a tested leader. It's not that we did not look for one. We did, and how! But there isn't one I'm doing it out of a sense of responsibility.
On 7 January , Berlusconi announced he had made a coalition agreement Centre-right coalition with Lega Nord LN ; as part of it, PdL would support Roberto Maroni 's bid for the presidency of Lombardy , and he will run as "leader of the coalition", but suggested he could accept a role as Minister of Economy under a cabinet headed by another People of Freedom member, such as Angelino Alfano.
Later that day, LN leader Maroni confirmed his party will not support Berlusconi being appointed as Prime Minister in the case of an electoral win.
In June , Berlusconi announced the refoundation of his first party Forza Italia. Because he was sentenced to a gross imprisonment of more than two years, a new Italian anticorruption law resulted in the Senate expelling and barring him from serving in any legislative office for six years.
In March he expressed his intention to run once again as centre-right candidate for the premiership, even if he is banned from public office until ;   the general election was his seventh one as the centre-right frontunner.
However, the general election resulted in the Lega Nord winning more seats than Forza Italia , and no electoral coalition winning an outright majority.
In January , Berlusconi expressed his intention to run for candidacy in the European Parliament election in Italy.
Berlusconi was elected in the Parliament, becoming the oldest member of the assembly. Berlusconi and his cabinets have had a strong tendency to support American foreign policies,  despite the policy divide between the U.
Berlusconi is one of the strongest supporters of Turkey's application to accede to the European Union.
President George W. Bush , said that he pushed for "a clear turnaround in the Iraqi situation" and for a quick handover of sovereignty to the government chosen by the Iraqi people.
In November , Italy's state-owned energy company Eni signed an agreement with Russian state-owned Gazprom to build the South Stream pipeline.
The Italian parliament blocked the contract and accused Berlusconi of having a personal interest in the Eni-Gazprom agreement.
Berlusconi is among the most vocal supporters of closer ties between Russia and the European Union. In an article published in Italian media on 26 May , he said that the next step in Russia's growing integration with the West should be EU membership.
Berlusconi had a warm relationship with Vladimir Putin. The two leaders often described their relationship as a close friendship, continuing to organize bilateral meetings even after Berlusconi's resignation in November Under Berlusconi, Italy was an ally of Israel.
Benjamin Netanyahu said of Berlusconi: "We are lucky that there is a leader such as yourself. I don't believe we have a better friend in the international community.
Berlusconi visited Alexander Lukashenko in Belarus in Berlusconi became the first Western leader to visit Lukashenko since Lukashenko came to power in At a press conference, Berlusconi paid compliments to Lukashenko and said "Good luck to you and your people, whom I know love you".
In exchange, Libya would take measures to combat illegal immigration coming from its shores and boost investment in Italian companies. According to protocol, Gaddafi should have sat three places away from Berlusconi.
However, when Gaddafi faced a civil war in , Italy imposed a freeze on some Libyan assets linked to him and his family, pursuant to a United Nations -sponsored regime  and then bombed the country with the violation of Libya of the No-Fly Zone.
Berlusconism Italian : Berlusconismo is a term used in the Western media and by a few Italian analysts to describe the political positions of Berlusconi.
The term "Berlusconismo" arose in the s, with a strongly positive meaning, as a synonym for entrepreneurial optimism , that is, as an entrepreneurial spirit which is not shaken by difficulties, and believes that problems can be solved.
According to the Italian definition given by the online vocabulary of the Encyclopedia Institute, Berlusconismo has a wide range of meanings, all having their origins in the figure of Berlusconi, and the political movement inspired by him: the "thought movement",  but also to "social phenomenon",  and, even, the phenomenon "of custom"  bound to his entrepreneurial and political figure.
The term is also used to refer to a certain laissez-faire vision supported by him, not in the economy and markets, but also in relation to politics.
According to Berlusconi's political and entrepreneurial opponents, Berlusconismo is only a form of demagogic populism , comparable to Fascism , in part because Berlusconi has defended aspects of the regime of Benito Mussolini ,  even though he has criticised the racial Fascist laws and the alliance with Nazi Germany.
Berlusconi defines himself as moderate ,  liberal , and a free trader ,  but he is often accused of being a populist and a conservative.
One of Berlusconi's main leadership tactics is to use the party as an apparatus to reach power defined as a "light party", because of a lack of a complex structure.
Another feature of great importance is emphasis on a "liberal revolution", summarised by the " Contract with the Italians " of More recently, Berlusconi has declared himself favourable to civil unions.
A number of writers and political commentators consider Berlusconi's political success a precedent for the election of real estate tycoon Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States ,    with most noting Berlusconi's panned Prime Ministerial tenure and therefore making the comparison in dismay.
Roger Cohen of The New York Times argued, "Widely ridiculed, endlessly written about, long unscathed by his evident misogyny and diverse legal travails, Berlusconi proved a Teflon politician [ In a piece written for Slate and published in April , Lorenzo Newman noted the similarities in the career trajectories between the two men - "Both grew their fortunes on allegedly mafia-linked real-estate developments, transitioned into successful careers as media moguls, and, against all odds, ascended to the helm of their respective national governments" - but also highlighted their shared tendency to question and undermine established institutions such as the judiciary and the press, the way that neither of them had been accepted by their countries' respective establishments despite their wealth, and how they channelled the resulting resentment into a populist form of politics by "portraying themselves as everymen, if not in wealth, then in language, tone and aspirations".
He also pointed out other commonalities, such as responding to concerns about conflicts of interest by delegating responsibility for running their businesses to family members.
As of April , after the Unipol case had been completed with Berlusconi being acquitted due to the statute of limitations, Berlusconi is involved in three ongoing court trials.
In February , Milan prosecutors brought charges against Berlusconi for alleged abuse of office connected with the publication of confidential wiretaps by the Italian newspaper Il Giornale , which is owned by Berlusconi's brother, in Their publication also eventually led to the collapse of the proposed takeover of Banca Nazionale del Lavoro by Unipol and the resignation of Fazio.
In February , Berlusconi was under investigation for corruption and illegal financing of political parties by the public prosecutor of Naples , in the figures of Vincenzo Piscitelli, Henry John Woodcock , Francesco Curcio, Alessandro Milita and Fabrizio Vanorio.
On 23 October , Berlusconi and Valter Lavitola were both indicted by the judge for preliminary hearings, Amelia Primavera.
For Senator De Gregorio the process has already been closed in a preliminary hearing, because he opted to voluntarily confess and bargained a reduced sentence of 20 months in prison for the crime.
The court hearing at first-instance for the indicted Berlusconi, has been scheduled to start on 11 February According to the prosecutors, Valter Lavitola was also working on behalf of Berlusconi as a go-between attempting to also bribe other senators.
Berlusconi has repeatedly questioned the legitimacy of the legal degree of the former Operation "Clean Hands" magistrate and leader of the Italy of Values party, Antonio Di Pietro , when he during a election rally and in an episode of the talk show Porta a Porta in March he repeatedly claimed that Di Pietro had not obtained his degree by passing the exams, but with the aid of the secret services, in order to have a judge placed in the system to overturn the parties of the so-called First Republic.
Di Pietro subsequently sued Berlusconi for aggravated defamation in June The public prosecutor concluded the preliminary investigation 13 November , by indicting Berlusconi for the defamation offence referred to in Article paragraph 2 of the Criminal Code.
The Italian Chamber of Deputies then intervened in the case by passing a decree 22 September , granting all Italian parliamentarians "absolute immunity" for words spoken while elected.
On 5 October , the court in Viterbo ruled that Berlusconi could not be judged or punished, because of the parliamentary immunity enshrined in Article 68 of the Italian constitution forbidding any legal prosecutions against words spoken by parliamentarians in the course of their "exercise of parliamentary duties", in conjunction with the Chamber of Deputies recently having voted for a decree to grant Berlusconi absolute immunity for any spoken words while serving as a deputy.
On 19 January , this judgement was set aside by the Supreme Court, which ruled that Berlusconi had been speaking during a campaign rally and not in an institutional setting; meaning he was not covered by the immunity protection provided for by Article 68, and consequently should face a new trial to be held either at the Viterbo court or the Constitutional Court.
On 10 January , the Viterbo court decided to transfer the case for judgement directly to the Constitutional Court. This mean that Berlusconi does not enjoy any special immunity protection for his spoken words during election campaigns, and that a court case now shall be held by the constitutional court, to decide the merits of the case.
In February , Berlusconi was charged with paying for sex with nightclub dancer Karima El Mahroug also known by the stage name Ruby Rubacuori between February and May , when she was one year below the legal 18 years age-limit for providing sexual services.
The fast-track trial opened on 6 April and was adjourned until 31 May. El Mahroug's lawyer said that Mahroug would not be attaching herself to the case as a civil complainant and denies that she ever made herself available for money.
Another alleged victim, Giorgia Iafrate, also decided not to be a party to the case. He was sentenced by the Court of First Instance to seven years in jail, and banned from public office for life.
In addition to the ongoing court trials, Berlusconi is currently also involved in the following two ongoing legal investigations, which will evolve to become an ongoing court trial if the judge at the preliminary hearing indict him of the alleged crime:.
As of October [update] , Berlusconi has only been convicted by the final appeal instance in 1 out of 32 court cases.
The Mediaset trial was launched in April , with indictment of fourteen people including Berlusconi for having committed:  . A false accounting and embezzlement in order to mask payments of substantial " black funds ", committed in — Both indictments were related to achievement of personal tax evasion , through illicit trade of movie rights between Mediaset and secret fictive foreign companies situated in tax haven nations, causing fictive losses for Mediaset, with the trade gains being accumulated by the foreign companies owned by the indicted tax fraudsters, who ultimately had the gains paid out as personal profit without paying tax in Italy.
On 26 October , Berlusconi was sentenced to four years of punishment by an Italian court for tax evasion. The four-year term was longer than the three years and eight months the prosecutors had requested, but was shortened to one year in accord with a amnesty law intended to reduce prison overcrowding.
On 8 May , the Court of Appeals in Milan confirmed the four-year prison sentence, and extended the public office ban to five years.
In regards of calculating the exact length of the public office ban, the Court of Cassation asked the lower court to re-judge this, because of prosecutors having presented new legal arguments for the ban to be reduced from five to three years.
However, a new anti-corruption law passed in late , referred to as the Severino law , will bar Berlusconi from seeking elective office for six years, independently of the court's final ruling regarding the length of the public office ban.
The ramification of his public office ban is that it makes him ineligible to serve any public office, but technically he will still be allowed as a non-candidate to continue leading his party and centre-right coalition in election campaigns.
A similar situation occurred in March , when the leader of the Five Star Movement , Beppe Grillo , convicted over a road accident in , led his party's election campaign despite not being able to run for public office because of a rule established within his movement.
Berlusconi, due to being over 70 years of age, will not be placed direct in prison, but can instead decide if he want to serve his one-year jail term either by a house arrest at one of his private residences or by doing community service.
As the gross prison term exceeds two years, the Severino law prompts the Italian senate to vote if Berlusconi shall be forced to resign his current senate seat immediately, or alternatively allowing the court imposed ban on holding public office only to take effect by the end of his current legislative term.
On 30 August, the Italian President Giorgio Napolitano announced he had not selected Berlusconi as one of the new four lifetime senators , which are granted the privileges of being a lawmaker for life with some protected legal immunity, meaning they can continue working in politics even after being convicted guilty for criminal offences that otherwise would lead to ban from serving one of the public offices.
Before the committee decision becomes effective, it will need also to be approved by a vote in the full Senate. The deliberations of the Senate committee are expected to last for several weeks, before they reach a decision.
According to the Severino law , which became enacted by the Monti government in December , anyone sentenced to more than two years in prison is deemed ineligible to hold public office for a period of six years or eight years if convicted for "abuse of power" , and should immediately be expelled from the parliament.
Berlusconi has argued that the Severino law can not be used to expel persons convicted for crimes committed before December , and pleaded for the proceedings to be postponed until the European Court of Human Rights or Italy's constitutional court had ruled, whether or not he was correct about his interpretation of the law.
Berlusconi also stated that he in any case had decided to appeal the court ruling against him to the European Court of Human Rights, as he still claimed the ruling itself to be a political and unjust attempt by his opponents, to deprive him of his political power.
The response by Prime Minister Enrico Letta 's centre-left Democratic Party was however to reject Berlusconi's plea, accusing him of only launching time-wasting maneuvers.
The Democratic Party replied by warning the PDL that they would reject any blackmail attempts, and in any case only would vote in the Senate committee according to the standard of the Italian law.
Ahead of the Senate committee's voting, the leading criminal lawyer Paola Severino, who helped design the Severino law , stated to the La Repubblica newspaper that this specific law in her professional opinion clearly also applied for crimes being committed before its enactment in December On 10 September, at the second day of the Senate deliberations, the Democratic Party stated they intended to vote down all three PDL submitted motions to delay the Senate deliberations, and accused PDL of obstructing the work of the Senate committee by playing delaying tactics.
Renato Brunetta , floor leader of the PDL in the lower house, responded by saying "If the Democratic Party and Grillo's people decide this evening to vote against the proposals, the Democratic Party will bring down the Letta government".
Berlusconi was expected to start serving his four-year prison sentence reduced to one year , either under house arrest or doing unpaid social community service , in mid-October Because of bureaucracy in the legal court system, it was however expected his one-year-long full-time community service would only start in around April As of , Berlusconi's appeal regarding his six-year public office ban was pending before the European Court of Human Rights.
On 24 June , Berlusconi was found guilty of paying an underage prostitute for sex, and of abusing his powers in an ensuing cover up. He was sentenced to seven years in jail, and banned from public office for life.
He was acquitted from the sex charges by the Italy appeals court on Friday, 18 July According to journalists Marco Travaglio and Enzo Biagi , Berlusconi entered politics to save his companies from bankruptcy and himself from convictions.
Berlusconi's supporters hailed him as the " novus homo ", an outsider who was going to bring a new efficiency to the public bureaucracy and reform the state from top to bottom.
Berlusconi was investigated for forty different inquests in less than two years. Berlusconi's governments passed laws that shortened statutory terms for tax fraud.
Romano Prodi, who defeated Berlusconi in , claimed that these were ad personam laws, meant to solve Berlusconi's problems and defend his interests.
Berlusconi's extensive control over the media has been widely criticised by some analysts,  some press freedom organisations, and extensively by several Italian newspapers, national and private TV channels, by opposition leaders and in general members of opposition parties, who allege that Italy's media has limited freedom of expression.
However such coverage of the complaint in practice put under discussion the point of the complaint itself. Reporters Without Borders states that in , "The conflict of interests involving Prime Minister Berlusconi and his vast media empire was still not resolved and continued to threaten news diversity".
In , Luciano Violante , a prominent member of the Left, said in a speech in Parliament : "Honourable Anedda, I invite you to ask the honourable Berlusconi, because he certainly knows that he received a full guarantee in , when the government changed—that TV stations would not be touched.
He knows it and the Honourable Letta knows it. According to the authors, this would be an explanation of why the Left, despite having won the elections, did not pass a law to solve the conflicts of interest between media ownership and politics.
Berlusconi said that they "use television as a criminal means of communication". They lost their jobs as a result.
The TV broadcasting of a satirical programme called RAIot was censored in November after the comedian Sabina Guzzanti made outspoken criticism of the Berlusconi media empire.
The details of the event were made into a Michael Moore -style documentary called Viva Zapatero! Enrico Mentana , the news anchor long seen as a guarantor of Canale 5's independence, walked out in April , saying that he no longer felt "at home in a group that seems like an electoral campaign committee".
On 24 June , Berlusconi during the Confindustria young members congress in Santa Margherita Ligure , Italy has invited the advertisers to interrupt or boycott the advertising contracts with the magazines and newspapers published by Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso ,  in particular la Repubblica and the newsmagazine L'espresso , calling the publishing group "shameless",  claiming that it was fuelling the economic crisis by discussing it extensively and accusing it of making a "subversive attack" against him.
On 12 October , Berlusconi during the Confindustria Monza and Brianza members' congress, again invited the industrialists present to join a "widespread rebellion" against a "newspaper that hadn't any limits in discrediting the government and the country and indoctrinating foreign newspapers".
He also added that Italy will probably be ranked last in the European Union in the upcoming edition of the RWB press freedom index. One of Berlusconi's strongest critics in the media outside Italy is the British weekly The Economist nicknamed "The Ecommunist" by Berlusconi, despite the magazine's association with market liberalism ,  which in its issue of 26 April carried a title on its front cover, 'Why Silvio Berlusconi is unfit to lead Italy'.
Berlusconi claimed the article contained "a series of old accusations" that was an "insult to truth and intelligence". This figure included stations he owns directly as well as those over which he had indirect control by dint of his position as Prime Minister and his ability to influence the choice of the management bodies of these stations.
The Economist has also claimed that the Italian Prime Minister is corrupt and self-serving. Lane points out that Berlusconi has not defended himself in court against the main charges, but has relied upon political and legal manipulations, most notably by changing the statute of limitation to prevent charges being completed in the first place.
In order to publicly prove the truth of the documented accusations contained in their articles, the newspaper has publicly challenged Berlusconi to sue The Economist for libel.
Berlusconi did so,  losing versus The Economist , and being charged for all the trial costs on 5 September , when the Court in Milan issued a judgment rejecting all Mr Berlusconi's claims and sentenced him to compensate for The Economist' s legal expenses.
In June , The Economist published a strong article dealing with Mr. Berlusconi, titled "The man who screwed an entire country". On some occasions, laws passed by the Berlusconi administration have effectively delayed ongoing trials involving him.
For example, the law reducing punishment for all cases of false accounting and the law on legitimate suspicion , which allowed defendants to request their cases to be moved to another court if they believe that the local judges are biased against them.
Because of these legislative actions, political opponents accuse Berlusconi of passing these laws for the purpose of protecting himself from legal charges.
La Repubblica , for example, sustained that Berlusconi passed 17 different laws which have advantaged himself.
Berlusconi and his government quarrelled with the Italian judiciary often. His administration attempted to pass a judicial reform intended to limit the flexibility of judges and magistrates in their decision-making.
Critics said it would instead limit the magistracy's independence by de facto subjecting the judiciary to the executive's control.
The reform was met by almost unanimous dissent from the Italian judges, but was passed by the Italian parliament in December During the night hours between 5 and 6 March , the Berlusconi-led Italian government passed a decree "interpreting" the electoral law to let the PDL candidate run for governor in Lazio after she had failed to properly register for the elections.
The Italian Constitution states that electoral procedures can only be changed in Parliament, and must not be changed by governmental decree.
Italy's president, whose endorsement of the decree was required by law, said that the measure taken by the government may not violate the Constitution.
Berlusconi has never been tried on charges relating to the Cosa Nostra , although several Mafia turncoats have stated that Berlusconi had connections with the Sicilian criminal association.
The claims arise mostly from the hiring of Vittorio Mangano , who was accused of being a mafioso , as a gardener and stable-man at Berlusconi's Villa San Martino in Arcore , a small town near Milan.
Marcello Dell'Utri even stated that the Mafia did not exist at all. In , Dell'Utri, co-founder of Forza Italia , was sentenced to nine years by a Palermo court on charge of "external association to the Mafia",   a sentence describing Dell'Utri as a mediator between the economic interests of Berlusconi and members of the criminal organisation.
Berlusconi refused to comment on the sentence. In , Palermo's appeals court cut the sentence to seven years but fully confirmed Dell'Utri's role as a link between Berlusconi and the Mafia until The alleged contacts, according to Cancemi, were to lead to legislation favourable to Cosa Nostra, in particular reforming the harsh bis prison regime.
The underlying premise was that Cosa Nostra would support Berlusconi's Forza Italia party in return for political favours. They did not find evidence to corroborate Cancemi's allegations.
Similarly, a two-year investigation, also launched on evidence from Cancemi, into Berlusconi's alleged association with the Mafia was closed in To be clear, that party was Forza Italia.
Provenzano stated that the Mafia's judicial problems would be resolved within 10 years of , thanks to the undertakings given by Forza Italia.
At the time Berlusconi still was just a wealthy real estate developer and started his private television empire. Bontade visited Berlusconi's villa in Arcore through his contact Vittorio Mangano.
The alleged pact with the Mafia fell apart in Cosa Nostra had achieved nothing. Spatuzza testified that his boss Giuseppe Graviano had told him in , that Berlusconi was bargaining with the Mafia, concerning a political-electoral agreement between Cosa Nostra and Berlusconi's Forza Italia.
Spatuzza said Graviano disclosed the information to him during a conversation in a bar Graviano owned in the upscale Via Veneto district of the Italian capital Rome.
Dell'Utri was the intermediary, according to Spatuzza. Dell'Utri has dismissed Spatuzza's allegations as "nonsense".
I am sorry that words that have been misunderstood have offended the sensitivity of my Arab and Muslim friends. After the family of Eluana Englaro who had been comatose for 17 years succeeded in having her right to die recognized by the judges and getting doctors to start the process of allowing her to die in the way established by the court, Berlusconi issued a decree to stop the doctor from letting her die.
Stating that, "This is murder. I would be failing to rescue her. I'm not a Pontius Pilate ". Berlusconi went on to defend his decision by claiming that she was "in the condition to have babies",  arguing that comatose women were still subject to menstruation.
During his long career as Prime Minister , Berlusconi has had to deal with massive immigration from the coast of North Africa.
To limit illegal immigration , the Berlusconi's government promulgated the Bossi-Fini law in This law took the name by the leaders of the two right-wing allied parties in Berlusconi's government coalition, Umberto Bossi of Lega Nord and Gianfranco Fini of National Alliance.
The law provides the expulsion, issued by the Prefect of the Province where an illegal foreign immigrant is found, and is immediately performed with the assistance at the border of the police.
Illegal immigrants without valid identity documents, are taken to detention centers , set up by the Turco-Napolitano law , in order to be identified.
The law provides for the issuance of residence permits to persons who provide proof of having a job for their maintenance budget.
To this general rule you add the special residence permits and those in the application of the right to asylum. The standard allows the repatriation to the country of origin on the high seas, on the basis of bilateral agreements between Italy and neighboring countries, which commit the police forces of their respective countries to cooperate in the prevention of illegal immigration.
If the illegal immigrant ships dock on Italian soil, the identification of those entitled to political asylum and the supply of medical treatment and care is undertaken by the marine police force.
The law had been severely criticised by the centre-left opposition. In , the European Parliament asked Italy to modify the Bossi-Fini law because it was too restrictive and severe.
Berlusconi has developed a reputation for making gaffes or insensitive remarks. This incident caused a brief cooling of Italy's relationship with Germany.
Addressing traders at the New York Stock Exchange in September , Berlusconi listed a series of reasons to invest in Italy, the first of which was that "we have the most beautiful secretaries in the world".
This remark resulted in remonstration among female members of parliament, who took part in a one-day cross-party protest.
In , during an interview with Nicholas Farrell, then editor of The Spectator , Berlusconi claimed that Mussolini "had been a benign dictator who did not murder opponents but sent them 'on holiday ' ".
Berlusconi had made disparaging remarks about Finnish cuisine during negotiations to decide on the location of the European Food Safety Authority in He caused further offence in , when he claimed that during the negotiations he had had to "dust off his playboy charms" in order to persuade the Finnish president, Tarja Halonen , to concede that the EFSA should be based in Parma instead of Finland, and compared Finnish smoked reindeer unfavourably to culatello.
The Italian ambassador in Helsinki was summoned by the Finnish foreign minister. Halonen took the incident in good humour, retorting that Berlusconi had "overestimated his persuasion skills".
The pizza won first prize in America's Plate International pizza contest in March In March , Berlusconi alleged that Chinese communists under Mao Zedong had "boiled [children] to fertilise the fields".
In the run-up to the Italian general election , Berlusconi was accused of sexism for saying that female politicians from the right were "more beautiful" and that "the left has no taste, even when it comes to women".
He also stated that he doubted that such a composition would be possible in Italy given the "prevalence of men" in Italian politics. Also in , Berlusconi caused controversy at a joint press conference with Russian president Vladimir Putin.
When a journalist from the Russian paper Nezavisimaya Gazeta asked a question about Mr. Putin's personal relationships, Berlusconi made a gesture towards the journalist imitating a gunman shooting.
On 6 November , two days after Barack Obama was elected the first black US president, Berlusconi referred to Obama as "young, handsome and even tanned":    On 26 March he said "I'm paler [than Mr.
Obama], because it's been so long since I went sunbathing. He's more handsome, younger and taller. On 24 January , Berlusconi announced his aim to increase the numbers of military patrolling the Italian cities from 3, to 30, in order to crack down on what he called an "evil army" of criminals.
Responding to a female journalist who asked him if this tenfold increase in patrolling soldiers would be enough to secure Italian women from being raped, he said: "We could not field a big enough force to avoid this risk [of rape].
We would need as many soldiers as beautiful women and I don't think that would be possible, because our women are so beautiful.
Berlusconi retorted that he had merely wanted to compliment Italian women. Other critics accused him of creating a police state. Two days after the L'Aquila earthquake , Berlusconi suggested that people left homeless should view their experience as a camping weekend.
Subsequently, at a tent camp on the outskirts of L'Aquila housing some of the more than 30, people who lost their homes during the earthquake he said to an African priest: "you have a nice tan.
In October , Berlusconi was chastised by the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano after he was filmed telling "offensive and deplorable jokes", including one whose punchline was similar to one of the gravest blasphemies in the Italian language.
It was also revealed he had made another antisemitic joke a few days previously. Berlusconi responded to the allegations by saying the jokes were "neither an offence nor a sin, but merely a laugh".
On 1 November , after once again being accused of involvement in juvenile prostitution, he suggested that an audience at the Milan trade fair should stop reading newspapers: "Don't read newspapers any more because they deceive you.
On 13 July , according to a leaked telephone surveillance transcript, Berlusconi told his presumed blackmailer Valter Lavitola: "The only thing they can say about me is that I screw around [ I don't give a fuck.
In a few months [ On 27 January , on the occasion of the Holocaust Remembrance Day , Berlusconi said the Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini , except for passing anti-Jewish laws in , only had done "good things" for Italy; and also said Mussolini from a strategic point of view did the right thing in siding with Adolf Hitler during World War II , because Hitler at the point of time when the alliance was made had appeared to be winning the war.
Berlusconi's career as an entrepreneur is also often questioned by his detractors. The allegations made against him generally include suspicions about the extremely rapid increase of his activity in the construction industry in the years —63, hinting at the possibility that in those years he received money from unknown and possibly illegal sources.
Mr Berlusconi - who has served as prime minister in four governments - is still facing a number of charges, including bribery.
He denies the allegations. What about the murder investigation? Milan chief prosecutor Francesco Greco told Reuters news agency there were "several anomalies" in Ms Fadil's medical records.
Italy's Corriere della Sera newspaper reported that Milan's hospital had sent samples to a specialist laboratory. The results suggested the presence of a mix of radioactive substances, including cobalt.
This has not been confirmed by Italian prosecutors. Italian media also report that Ms Fadil - a regular guest at Mr Berlusconi's sex parties - was writing a book about her experiences, and magistrates investigating her death have obtained a copy of the manuscript.
Mr Berlusconi's reputation was tarnished by allegations about the parties at his private villa. In October , it emerged that Mr Berlusconi had called a police station asking for the release of a year-old girl, Karima "Ruby" El Mahroug.
URL consultato il 28 novembre archiviato dall' url originale il 13 ottobre URL consultato il 16 aprile archiviato dall' url originale il 16 aprile URL consultato l'11 marzo archiviato l'11 marzo URL consultato il 19 aprile URL consultato il 14 aprile URL consultato il 12 maggio URL consultato il 28 maggio archiviato dall' url originale il 22 novembre URL consultato il 23 febbraio archiviato dall' url originale il 14 gennaio URL consultato il 7 gennaio archiviato dall' url originale il 26 febbraio URL consultato il 6 marzo archiviato dall' url originale il 28 settembre URL consultato il 12 luglio archiviato dall' url originale il 19 ottobre Lavora giorno e notte, sabato e domenica.
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URL consultato il 24 aprile Replica di Ciampi , in Corriere della Sera , Roma, 4 settembre Riesplode violenta la polemica. Berlusconi attacca i giudici Ciampi li difende , in RaiNews24 , Roma, 5 settembre URL consultato il 2 marzo archiviato dall' url originale l'8 maggio URL consultato il 28 novembre archiviato dall' url originale il 25 febbraio URL consultato il 2 gennaio archiviato dall' url originale il 20 febbraio E Berlusconi fa il gesto del mitra , in la Repubblica , Porto Rotondo, 18 aprile La gaffe rimbalza sui media internazionali , in RaiNews24 , Roma, 6 novembre URL consultato il 26 aprile Non ci sono tutti questi coglioni , in la Repubblica , Roma, 4 aprile E la Confesercenti fischia il premier , in Corriere della Sera , Roma, 28 giugno URL consultato il 27 aprile archiviato dall' url originale il 17 agosto URL consultato il 4 settembre URL consultato il 13 settembre URL consultato il 28 novembre archiviato dall' url originale il 27 maggio URL consultato il 28 novembre archiviato dall' url originale il 23 giugno Berlusconi prosciolto per prescrizione , in Corriere della Sera , Milano, luglio URL consultato il 28 novembre archiviato il 7 marzo URL consultato il 9 luglio Assolto Silvio Berlusconi , in la Repubblica , Roma, 19 ottobre Respinto il ricorso dei pm di Milano , in Il Fatto Quotidiano , 18 maggio URL consultato il 28 novembre archiviato dall' url originale l'8 dicembre Giudizio immediato, prima udienza il 6 aprile , in la Repubblica , Milano, 15 febbraio Interdizione per sempre dai pubblici uffici , in ANSA , 23 luglio URL consultato il 28 novembre archiviato il 24 giugno URL consultato il 24 luglio PDF , su societacivile.
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Silvio Berlusconi nel Roberto Maroni Giuseppe Tatarella. Sito istituzionale. Coalizione di centro-destra del Italia centrale V Italia nord-occidentale IX.
Laurea in giurisprudenza Laurea in ingegneria gestionale ad honorem. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Politiche di Silvio Berlusconi.
Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Ingresso in politica di Silvio Berlusconi. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Elezioni politiche italiane del Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Berlusconismo e Antiberlusconismo.
Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Lodo Retequattro e Legge Gasparri.
Ich werde Sie für die Rolle eines Kapos vorschlagen. Sie sind dafür wie geschaffen. Berlusconi beharrte darauf, einen Scherz gemacht zu haben; gleichwohl verursachte dieser Vergleich eine kurze diplomatische Krise zwischen Italien und Deutschland.
Nach einer telefonischen Erklärung Berlusconis gegenüber Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder beruhigte sie sich relativ bald wieder. April das Thema wieder auf und behauptete mit Blick auf seinen Auftritt im Europäischen Parlament am 2.
Nach den Terroranschlägen vom September verursachte Berlusconi Aufregung mit folgenden Sätzen:. Der Westen wird weiterhin für die Völker eine freiheitsorientierte Demokratie sein, um der kommunistischen und der islamischen Welt eine Möglichkeit der friedlichen Koexistenz zu ermöglichen.
Leider ist ein Teil der muslimischen Welt um 1. Die westliche Gesellschaft hat Werte wie Freiheitsliebe, die Freiheit der Völker und des Einzelnen, die leider nicht zu den Idealen anderer Zivilisationen, wie z.
Andere kontrovers diskutierte Aussagen Berlusconis sind z. Januar der Die ganze Welt ist gegen uns. Italien sei das Land, das er liebe.
So sagte er beispielsweise, seine Partei habe, verglichen mit den linken Parteien im Parlament, die hübscheren weiblichen Abgeordneten.
Der Umstand, dass Carfagna früher an Misswahlen teilgenommen und für Nacktaufnahmen posiert hatte, veranlasste Frauenrechtlerinnen zu Kritik.
Daraufhin verloren mit einer Ausnahme alle diese Kandidatinnen ihren Listenplatz. Probleme zwischen Berlusconi und seiner Ehefrau wurden mehrfach über Medien ausgetragen.
Geburtstagsfeier einer jungen Frau namens Noemi Letizia anwesend war. Berlusconi selbst trat im Staatsfernsehen auf; er erklärte, er habe niemals intimen Kontakt zu der jungen Neapolitanerin gehabt und kenne sie nur, weil ihr Vater der Fahrer des ehemaligen Ministerpräsidenten Bettino Craxi gewesen sei.
Noemis Ex-Freund erzählte dagegen in einem Interview mit La Repubblica , Berlusconi habe eines Tages aus heiterem Himmel bei der damals Jährigen angerufen, weil er ihr Bild und ihre Telefonnummer in einer Bewerbungsmappe entdeckt hatte.
Berlusconi stritt ab, jemals eine Frau bezahlt zu haben, und erklärte, die Zeugenaussage belege wohl seine göttlichen Qualitäten als Liebhaber.
Später brüstete er sich, dass kein anderer demokratisch gewählter Regierungschef eine solche Affäre unbeschadet überstanden hätte.
Februar entschied ein Gericht in Mailand, dass sich Silvio Berlusconi wegen Amtsmissbrauchs und Umgangs mit minderjährigen Prostituierten vor Gericht verantworten muss.
Der Prozess begann am 6. April ; er wurde nach wenigen Minuten auf den Mai vertagt. Berlusconi und el-Mahroug hatten nicht am Prozessauftakt teilgenommen.
Durch eine Amnestie -Regelung wurde das Urteil auf eine einjährige Haftstrafe reduziert. Berlusconis Medienimperium Mediaset wird vorgeworfen, Ende der er-Jahre an dubiosen Offshore -Geschäften beteiligt gewesen zu sein.
Im März wurde bekannt, dass die Staatsanwaltschaft Neapel gegen Berlusconi wegen Korruption und illegaler Parteienfinanzierung ermittelt. Forza Italia war eine politische Bewegung, die extrem auf ihre Führungsperson zugeschnitten war.
Unterschiede zwischen der Parteilinie und den persönlichen Ansichten Berlusconis sind nicht erkennbar.
Das Parteiprogramm der Forza Italia war vor allem von wirtschaftsliberalen und konservativen Ideen beeinflusst. Mit einer Verfassungsreform wollte er die Macht des italienischen Ministerpräsidenten ausweiten und eine Reform zur Stärkung der Zuständigkeiten der Regionen erreichen; die ohne Einbeziehung der Opposition im Alleingang verabschiedete Verfassungsreform wurde jedoch nach seiner Abwahl in einem Referendum abgelehnt.
Die versprochene umfassende Steuerreform wurde nicht verwirklicht und zuletzt Anfang erneut in Aussicht gestellt, um nur zwei Tage später auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben zu werden.
Allerdings waren italienische Truppen nicht an den Kampfhandlungen beteiligt, sondern wurden erst entsandt, nachdem der Krieg offiziell beendet war.
Es ist bis heute nicht möglich, die Herkunft der umfangreichen Finanzmittel zu klären, über die Berlusconi bereits als junger Unternehmer verfügte.
An anderer Stelle verwies er auf seinen Vater als Finanzier. Die Vorwürfe der Geldwäsche konnten nie bestätigt werden. Die Details dieser Verflechtung ökonomischer und krimineller Interessen wurden in der Urteilsbegründung dargelegt.
Demnach waren landesweit empfangbare Fernsehkanäle in Privatbesitz schlichtweg verboten. Das Parlament weigerte sich jedoch, das Dekret in ein Gesetz umzuwandeln, daraufhin brachte Craxi das Dekret als Gesetzesvorschlag ins Parlament ein und verband es mit einer Vertrauensfrage, die zugunsten Craxis ausging.
Drei Jahre später prüfte das Verfassungsgericht das Gesetz und erklärte es für gültig, unterstrich aber seine Vorläufigkeit.
Durch das neue Gesetz wurde er allerdings gezwungen, Anteile an der Verlagsgesellschaft der Zeitung Giornale abzugeben, die er seinem Bruder Paolo verkaufte.
Diese Gerichtsentscheidung blieb jedoch folgenlos. Die zwei am häufigsten genannten Aspekte sind der ökonomische Zustand von Fininvest und die vielen juristischen Probleme Ende der er und Anfang der er Jahre.
Anhänger Berlusconis sehen in seinem enormen Reichtum eine Garantie für Ehrbarkeit, da es absurd sei, anzunehmen, Berlusconi wolle sich durch seine politischen Ämter weiter bereichern.
Dabei bezog er sich auf den Zusammenbruch der italienischen Parteilandschaft Mitte der er Jahre siehe auch Tangentopoli und Mani pulite.
Kritiker werfen Berlusconi vor, nur deshalb in die Politik gegangen zu sein, um seine Firmen vor dem Bankrott und sich selbst vor juristischen Zugriffen zu schützen.
Einige enge Freunde des Cavaliere haben inzwischen zugegeben, dass sich Fininvest Anfang der er in finanziellen Schwierigkeiten befunden hat und dies ein Grund für seine politischen Aktivitäten war, so z.
Laut Gesetz aus dem Jahr hätte Berlusconi eigentlich gar nicht antreten dürfen, denn dieses Gesetz besagt, dass Personen, die vom Staat Konzessionen in diesem Fall TV-Übertragungsrechte in bedeutendem finanziellen Umfang erhalten haben, unwählbar sind.
In der Praxis soll dieser Gefahr durch das par condicio -Gesetz vorgebeugt werden, das allen führenden Politikern und Parteien ungefähr gleich viel Sendezeit einräumt auch in Mediaset-Programmen.
Anhänger Berlusconis argumentierten, dass staatliches Fernsehen in Bezug auf die Politik stets neutral sein müsse, Gegner sahen den Pluralismus , der für einen öffentlichen Dienst in einer Demokratie typisch sei, gefährdet.
Jedenfalls arbeitete nach Dezember keiner der drei mehr für die RAI. Enzo Biagi und Daniele Luttazzi erhielten keine neuen Verträge mehr.
Michele Santoro erstritt nach einigen Jahren Zwangspause per Gerichtsbeschluss seine Wiedereinstellung. Vor seinem ersten Regierungsantritt hatte Berlusconi versprochen, den Interessenkonflikt innerhalb von drei Monaten per Gesetz zu beseitigen, ein Versprechen das er jedoch nicht einhielt.
Die Verbindung medialer und politischer Macht mit ihrer Verquickung privater und öffentlicher Interessen blieb daher umstritten, weil sie einerseits das Prinzip demokratischer Chancengleichheit aushöhle und andererseits dem Unternehmer Berlusconi zahlreiche Vorteile gegenüber seinen Konkurrenten verschafft habe.
Von Seiten seiner politischen Gegner und seiner Kritiker im In- und Ausland wird Berlusconi vorgeworfen, dass viele unter seinen Regierungen erlassenen Gesetze offensichtlich auf seine Interessen zugeschnitten seien, vor allem um sich und seine Gefolgsleute vor Zugriffen der italienischen Justiz zu schützen.
Für die Aufhebung der so genannten Ad-personam -Gesetze nach Berlusconis Wahlschlappe fand die neue Mitte-links-Regierung bis zum vorzeitigen Ende der Legislaturperiode keine Mehrheiten im Parlament.
Auf Drängen Berlusconis sind während seiner Amtszeit zwei politische Immunitätsgesetze verabschiedet worden.
Das im Jahr verabschiedete Gesetz sog. Lodo Maccanico-Schifani zum Schutz der fünf höchsten Staatsämter half Berlusconi zunächst in seinen anhängigen Strafverfahren, wurde danach jedoch für verfassungswidrig erklärt und somit unwirksam.
Juli segnete das italienische Parlament ein beinahe identisches Gesetz ab sog. Lodo Alfano , das die vier höchsten Spitzenpolitiker des Landes, den Staatspräsidenten, die Präsidenten von Abgeordnetenhaus und Senat sowie den Regierungschef, also Berlusconi selbst, während der Amtszeit vor jeder Strafverfolgung schützte.
Dadurch können die aufgrund des Sondergesetzes eingestellten Strafverfahren gegen Berlusconi wieder aufgenommen werden.
Berlusconi wurde Stand in Italien über 30 Male vor Gericht angeklagt. Er beschuldigte involvierte Staatsanwälte und Richter der Voreingenommenheit und behauptete, die italienische Justiz wolle ihn stürzen; sie arbeite mit Linken Hand in Hand.
Mitte sagte er in einem Interview mit der Wochenzeitung The Spectator , die Richter seien linkslastig und verrückt. Bereits und war die Fininvest ins Blickfeld der Staatsanwaltschaften von Turin und Rom geraten, zunächst noch im Zuge der Ermittlungen zu Tangentopoli bzw.
Mani pulite ; es ging um vermutete Schmiergeldzahlungen, gefälschte Bilanzen und illegale Parteifinanzierung. Berlusconi blieb dennoch bei seiner Version dass nämlich die juristischen Untersuchungen zeitlich nach seinem Eintritt in die Politik einzuordnen seien und erstattete in Brescia Anzeige gegen Mailänder Gerichte wegen des Delikts Angriff auf ein Verfassungsorgan.
Hierfür wurden Film- und Fernsehrechte zu überhöhten Preisen verkauft. Oktober Berufung an. Berlusconis Anwälte legten Revision ein. August den Schuldspruch, der damit rechtskräftig wurde.
Auf der Grundlage der Gerichtsentscheidung entzog die italienische Polizei Berlusconi am 3. August den Pass. Letta nahm die Rücktritte nicht an; Berlusconi vollführte in letzter Minute eine politische Wendung und rief zur Unterstützung der Regierung in einem Misstrauensvotum auf.
Oktober gewonnen. Von politischen Beobachtern wurden die Ereignisse als deutliches Zeichen der Schwäche und des Kontrollverlustes Berlusconis über seine Partei gewertet.
Hinsichtlich des Ämterausschlusses liefen damals zwei voneinander unabhängige Verfahren, ein Strafverfahren Neufestsetzung der Nebenstrafe Ämterverlust und ein Ausschlussverfahren vor dem Senat.
Oktober  darf Berlusconi zwei Jahre lang keine politischen Ämter mehr belegen. Zunächst war das Urteil noch nicht rechtskräftig, da Berlusconi Revision eingelegt hatte.
Als es rechtskräftig wurde, hatte es den Verlust aller politischen Ämter Berlusconis zur Folge. Ein Senatsausschuss empfahl am 4. Oktober angesichts der rechtswirksamen Verurteilung Berlusconis dessen Ausschluss aus dem Senat.
November statt und erfolgte auf Grundlage des Severino-Gesetzes legge Severino vom Dezember ,  eines am 5. Januar in Kraft getretenen Antikorruptionsgesetzes, das zu mehr als zwei Jahren Haft Verurteilte unwählbar macht, u.
Der Ausschluss aus dem Senat wurde am November mehrheitlich mit sofortiger Wirkung beschlossen. Aufgrund seines Alters musste Berlusconi die Strafhaft nicht antreten.
Hierzu sagte er am Berlusconi am November öffentlich eine Begnadigung ab. Diese Arbeit musste er nach einem Gerichtsbeschluss vom April einmal wöchentlich für vier aufeinanderfolgende Stunden in einem Senioreneinrichtung der Fondazione Istituto Sacra Famiglia in Cesano Boscone ableisten.
Nach Angaben des Leiters der Senioreneinrichtung hatte sich Berlusconi dort ab dem 9. Mai um Demenz - und Alzheimer -Patienten zu kümmern.
Dieser Sozialarbeit gingen nach Angaben des für die Einrichtung zuständigen Geistlichen vor ihm bereits Personen mit Alkoholproblemen und Pädophile nach.
Der Kontakt mit Vorbestraften und Drogenabhängigen war ihm untersagt. Die Regelung, deren Einhaltung von einer Mitarbeiterin des zuständigen Gerichts und der Polizei überwacht wurde, galt bis zum 8.
März Mai hob ein Gericht in Mailand das Verbot des Bekleidens politischer Ämter, das eigentlich noch bis zum Jahr hätte gelten sollen, auf.
Aufsehen erregte Berlusconi auch mit seinen Schönheitsoperationen. So zeigte er sich im Januar erst nach über einem Monat wieder im Rampenlicht, nachdem er sich vermutlich im Dezember Falten in einer Schönheitsklinik hatte entfernen lassen.
Seitdem trat er nicht mehr ungeschminkt in der Öffentlichkeit auf, so dass Bilder von Berlusconi ohne Make-up Anfang öffentliche Aufmerksamkeit erregten.
Ebenfalls veröffentlichte Berlusconi eine CD mit Liedern im neapolitanischen Dialekt , die von ihm zusammen mit Mariano Apicella komponiert wurden.
Alcide De Gasperi 1. Antonio Segni 2. Giovanni Leone 2. Mariano Rumor 1. Mariano Rumor 4. Aldo Moro 4. Giulio Andreotti 3. Francesco Cossiga 1. Amintore Fanfani 5.
Mr Berlusconi, 82, was initially convicted but then acquitted on appeal. He was later convicted of tax fraud and sentenced to carry out community service.
Speaking on Saturday, Mr Berlusconi said: "It's always a pity when a young person dies. I never met this person, never talked to her.
Mr Berlusconi - who has served as prime minister in four governments - is still facing a number of charges, including bribery.
He denies the allegations. What about the murder investigation? Milan chief prosecutor Francesco Greco told Reuters news agency there were "several anomalies" in Ms Fadil's medical records.
Italy's Corriere della Sera newspaper reported that Milan's hospital had sent samples to a specialist laboratory.
The results suggested the presence of a mix of radioactive substances, including cobalt. Per tali dichiarazioni il pretore di Verona Gabriele Nigro ha avviato nei confronti di Berlusconi un procedimento per falsa testimonianza.
Secondo le risultanze della Commissione parlamentare d'inchiesta Anselmi la loggia massonica era "eversiva". Essa fu sciolta con un'apposita legge, la n.
Conteneva una sorta di ruolino di marcia per la penetrazione di esponenti della loggia nei settori chiave dello Stato, indicazioni per l'avvio di opere di selezionato proselitismo e anche un preventivo dei costi per l'acquisizione delle funzioni vitali del potere".
Secondo il fondatore della P2, Berlusconi "ha preso il nostro Piano di rinascita e lo ha copiato quasi tutto". A interessarsi dell'affare sono i finanzieri Roberto Calvi e Umberto Ortolani.
Il testo precedente era questo:. Un conflitto di interessi emerge in presenza di proprietari di imprese che vengono ad assumere cariche pubbliche.
Questa tesi viene respinta da Berlusconi che nega di controllare la RAI malgrado l'apparente contenuto di varie intercettazioni, rivelate dalla stampa nel luglio , prefiguri un'azione di concerto, mirante a favorirlo, messa in atto da una parte dei vertici RAI e Mediaset: la cosiddetta struttura riservata "Delta" .
Egli sottolinea il fatto che durante il suo governo siano stati nominati presidente della RAI persone facenti riferimento al centrosinistra, in primo luogo Lucia Annunziata.
Non vennero mai resi noti i nomi dei tre esperti stranieri che si sarebbero dovuti occupare della questione, ma venne presentato un disegno di legge, poi approvato, che regolamentava il conflitto d'interesse.
Il centrosinistra al governo dal al , non era intervenuto invece sul tema del conflitto d'interessi. Il 13 luglio il Parlamento Italiano varava la Legge n.
Tale legge riceveva in seguito le dure critiche della Commissione di Venezia del Consiglio d'Europa. Con la locuzione legge ad personam si intende un provvedimento legislativo creato di fatto ad hoc a scopi prettamente personali e non erga omnes.
Tra le prime rientrano le seguenti:. Anche se non rientra nel novero delle leggi, possiamo citare a tal proposito il ricorso del governo contro la legge della regione Sardegna al divieto di costruire a meno di due chilometri dalle coste ricorso n.
Secondo questa linea di pensiero, la comparsa sulla scena politica di Berlusconi avrebbe causato profonde mutazioni di costume nel tessuto civile del Paese e tra le sue diverse componenti sociali.
Al riguardo la Corte fa riferimento anche a un'intervista a Dell'Utri pubblicata sul Corriere della Sera del 21 marzo La conversazione prosegue, anche con Confalonieri, con riferimenti all'attentato del e alla persona di Mangano ritenuto appena scarcerato.
La procura di Palermo ha indagato su Silvio Berlusconi e su Marcello Dell'Utri dal 2 gennaio per concorso esterno in associazione mafiosa e riciclaggio di denaro.
Al processo di Marcello Dell'Utri per concorso esterno in associazione mafiosa, la Cassazione ritiene pienamente confermato l'incontro tra Berlusconi, Dell'Utri e i capimafia Francesco Di Carlo , Stefano Bontate e Mimmo Teresi , testimoniato dallo stesso Di Carlo, attualmente collaboratore di giustizia, e di cui ha parlato anche Galliano, un altro collaboratore.
Nel vennero pubblicate alcune conversazioni tra Emilio Fede e il suo personal trainer, Gaetano Ferri , segretamente registrate da quest'ultimo, in cui l'ex direttore del TG4 rivela particolari importanti sui rapporti illeciti tra Berlusconi e la mafia siciliana , veicolati attraverso Marcello Dell'Utri , che faceva da tramite per Silvio  .
In questi dialoghi registrati Fede parla anche di Flavio Briatore , che, secondo quanto risulta dalle registrazioni di Ferri, sarebbe stato coinvolto anch'egli in una storia di mafia, ordinando l'assassinio di un industriale di Cuneo .
Il 18 aprile , durante la visita di Stato a Sofia in Bulgaria Berlusconi, da circa un anno presidente del consiglio rende un'assai discussa dichiarazione soprannominata dai suoi oppositori il " diktat bulgaro " o l'"editto di Sofia" :.
Santoro , ma l'altro Il 28 aprile , la moglie di Berlusconi, Veronica Lario, in un'e-mail all' ANSA espresse il suo sdegno riguardo alla possibile scelta del marito di candidare giovani ragazze di bella presenza, alcune delle quali senza esperienza politica, per le vicine elezioni europee.
Il 2 maggio seguente, dopo aver saputo che Berlusconi si era recato alla festa del diciottesimo compleanno di Noemi Letizia   una ragazza di Portici , ha poi affidato a un avvocato l'incarico di presentare richiesta di separazione dal marito.
Il 14 maggio il quotidiano La Repubblica pubblica un articolo in cui mostra le molte contraddizioni e discordanze della versione di Berlusconi concernente le sue frequentazioni con Noemi Letizia con le dichiarazioni degli altri protagonisti della vicenda, chiedendo al Presidente del Consiglio di rispondere a dieci domande,  poi riformulate.
Successivamente Berlusconi ha parzialmente risposto alle 10 domande di Repubblica sul libro di Bruno Vespa Donne di Cuori. Il 28 maggio Berlusconi giura sulla testa dei suoi figli di non aver mai avuto relazioni "piccanti" con minorenni, e che se stesse mentendo si dimetterebbe immediatamente.
Nel luglio il giornale L'Espresso pubblica sul suo sito le registrazioni audio ambientali degli incontri tra Silvio Berlusconi e l' escort Patrizia D'Addario, effettuate da quest'ultima nell'ottobre a palazzo Grazioli , residenza privata del capo di governo dell'epoca  , e ancora depositate dalla stessa persona presso la Procura di Bari che le ha secretate  in plichi sigillati collocati in una cassaforte blindata  ; sono state invece rese pubbliche altre intercettazioni di tipo telefonico acquisite dalla procura nell'ambito del procedimento giudiziario che intendeva far luce sui presunti favoritismi di Berlusconi verso l'imprenditore barese Gianpaolo Tarantini  , concretizzatisi poi in incarichi, affari pubblici e appalti in cambio di prestazioni di natura sessuale da parte di ragazze appositamente reclutate e indotte alla prostituzione.
A novembre scoppia il cosiddetto "caso Ruby". La vicenda ruota attorno all'allora minorenne marocchina Karima El Mahroug detta Ruby Rubacuori, fermata per furto nel maggio a Milano.
Tuttavia, dopo che Berlusconi ebbe telefonato in questura sostenendo che la giovane fosse la nipote dell'allora presidente egiziano Hosni Mubarak fatto poi dimostratosi falso , la ragazza venne affidata all'allora consigliere regionale PdL Nicole Minetti.
Ritenendo che quel denaro fosse stato il compenso per prestazioni sessuali, a gennaio la procura della Repubblica di Milano ha contestato a Berlusconi i reati di concussione e prostituzione minorile.
La vicenda ha avuto un grande clamore anche sui media internazionali e ha acceso il dibattito all'interno dell' opinione pubblica italiana.
L'assoluzione diventa definitiva il successivo 10 marzo con la favorevole sentenza della Corte di Cassazione.
In Italia e all'estero grande risalto mediatico hanno ricevuto alcune sue dichiarazioni, battute di spirito e comportamenti irrituali che gli hanno dato una fama di gaffeur , contribuendo nel contempo a caratterizzare la sua immagine pubblica.
Ripercussioni sul piano diplomatico ci furono anche in altre occasioni. Hanno suscitato clamore anche alcuni comportamenti scherzosi tenuti in presenza di ministri e governanti stranieri.
Il gesto fu criticato dalla Federazione Nazionale Stampa Italiana a causa dei numerosi casi di giornalisti assassinati in Russia. I media internazionali diedero ampio risalto alla vicenda.
Ah, Barack Obama. Why does he have to shout? In Italia hanno sollevato polemiche alcune sue esternazioni rivolte agli avversari politici e alla magistratura.
La rispetto. Hanno suscitato generale sorpresa, in Italia come all'estero, le affermazioni di Berlusconi in una conversazione del 13 luglio , in cui definiva l'Italia un "paese di merda ".
In altri processi, infine, sono state pronunciate, in primo grado o in appello, sentenze di condanna per reati quali corruzione giudiziaria, finanziamento illecito a partiti e falso in bilancio.
Eppure hanno fatto cadere il mio governo con quelle accuse. La bibliografia su Silvio Berlusconi riguarda libri, documenti, testi o atti parlamentari che citano l'imprenditore milanese o che sono stati citati nella voce principale per esigenze documentali.
Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Disambiguazione — "Berlusconi" rimanda qui. Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Berlusconi disambigua.
Motivo : Si veda la relativa discussione. Per contribuire, correggi i toni enfatici o di parte e partecipa alla discussione. Segui i suggerimenti dei progetti di riferimento 1 , 2.
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